Field Extensions

GraphQL::Schema::FieldExtension provides a way to modify user-defined fields in a programmatic way. For example, Relay connections are implemented as a field extension (GraphQL::Schema::Field::ConnectionExtension).

Making a new extension

Field extensions are subclasses of GraphQL::Schema::FieldExtension:

class MyExtension < GraphQL::Schema::FieldExtension

Using an extension

Defined extensions can be added to fields using the extensions: [...] option or the extension(...) method:

field :name, String, null: false, extensions: [UpcaseExtension]
# or:
field :description, String, null: false do

See below for how extensions may modify fields.

Modifying field configuration

When extensions are attached, they are initialized with a field: and options:. Then, #apply is called, when they may extend the field they’re attached to. For example:

class SearchableExtension < GraphQL::Schema::FieldExtension
  def apply
    # add an argument to this field:
    field.argument(:query, String, required: false, description: "A search query")

This way, an extension can encapsulate a behavior requiring several configuration options.

Modifying field execution

Extensions have two hooks that wrap field resolution. Since GraphQL-Ruby supports deferred execution, these hooks might not be called back-to-back.

First, GraphQL::Schema::FieldExtension#resolve is called. resolve should yield(object, arguments) to continue execution. If it doesn’t yield, then the underlying field won’t be called. Whatever #resolve returns will be used for continuing execution.

After resolution and after syncing lazy values (like Promises from graphql-batch), GraphQL::Schema::FieldExtension#after_resolve is called. Whatever that method returns will be used as the field’s return value.

See the linked API docs for the parameters of those methods.

Execution “memo”

One parameter to after_resolve deserves special attention: memo:. resolve may yield a third value. For example:

def resolve(object:, arguments:, **rest)
  # yield the current time as `memo`
  yield(object, arguments,

If a third value is yielded, it will be passed to after_resolve as memo:, for example:

def after_resolve(value:, memo:, **rest)
  puts "Elapsed: #{ - memo}"
  # Return the original value

This allows the resolve hook to pass data to after_resolve.

Instance variables may not be used because, in a given GraphQL query, the same field may be resolved several times concurrently, and that would result in overriding the instance variable in an unpredictable way. (In fact, extensions are frozen to prevent instance variable writes.)

Extension options

The extension(...) method takes an optional second argument, for example:

extension(LimitExtension, limit: 20)

In this case, {limit: 20} will be passed as options: to #initialize and options[:limit] will be 20.

For example, options can be used for modifying execution:

def after_resolve(value:, **rest)
  # Apply the limit from the options, a readable attribute on the class