⚡️ Pro Feature ⚡️ This feature is bundled with GraphQL-Pro.

Server Setup

Before using @defer in queries, you have to:

You can also see a full Rails & Apollo-Client demo.

Updating the gems

GraphQL::Pro::Defer is included in graphql-pro 1.10+, and it requires the new Interpreter runtime in graphql 1.9+, so update your gemfile:

# 1.9+ for Interpreter
gem "graphql", "~>1.9.0"
# 1.10+ for `@defer`
gem "graphql-pro", "~>1.10.0"

And then install them:

$ bundle update graphql graphql-pro

Adding @defer to your schema

Then, add GraphQL::Pro::Defer to your schema as a plugin:

class MySchema < GraphQL::Schema
  # The new interpreter runtime (1.9+) is required:
  use GraphQL::Execution::Interpreter
  use GraphQL::Analysis::AST

  # Then add the directive:
  use GraphQL::Pro::Defer
end

This will:

Sending streaming responses

Many web frameworks have support for streaming responses, for example:

See below for how to integrate GraphQL’s deferred patches with a streaming response API.

To investigate support with a web framework, please open an issue or email support@graphql.pro.

Checking for deferrals

When a query has any @defered fields, you can check for context[:defer]:

if context[:defer]
  # some fields were `@defer`ed
else
  # normal GraphQL, no `@defer`
end

Working with deferrals

To handle deferrals, you can enumerate over context[:defer], for example:

context[:defer].each do |deferral|
  # do something with the `deferral`, eg
  # stream_to_client(deferral.to_h)
end

The initial result is also present in the deferrals, so you can treat it just like a patch.

Each deferred patch has a few methods for building a response:

Calling .data or .errors on a deferral will resume GraphQL execution until the patch is complete.

Example: Rails with Apollo Client

In this example, a Rails controller will stream HTTP Multipart patches to the client, in Apollo Client’s supported format.

class GraphqlController < ApplicationController
  # Support `response.stream` below:
  include ActionController::Live

  def execute
    # ...
    result = MySchema.execute(query, variables: variables, context: context, operation_name: operation_name)

    # Check if this is a deferred query:
    if (deferred = result.context[:defer])
      # Use built-in `stream_http_multipart` with Apollo-Client & ActionController::Live
      deferred.stream_http_multipart(response)
    else
      # Return a plain, non-deferred result
      render json: result
    end
  ensure
    # Always make sure to close the stream
    response.stream.close
  end
end

You can also investigate a full Rails & Apollo-Client demo

Next Steps

Read about client usage of @defer.